quantitative


Method and system for the remote detection of the position of a pig device inside a pressurized pipeline.

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Quantitative - definition of quantitative by The Free Dictionary https: Quantitative easing , Quantitative data. Expressed or expressible as a quantity. Of or relating to a metrical system based on the duration of syllables rather than on stress.

Used especially of classical Greek and Latin verse. Poetry prosody denoting or relating to a metrical system, such as that in Latin and Greek verse, that is based on the relative length rather than stress of syllables. Classical prosody was quantitative. Describes a statement, or analysis, which gives the amounts of an item present.

Switch to new thesaurus. However, this attribute requires a background resistivity model used as reference, to highlight the resistivity difference of the anomalies from the background media with known resistivity. For this reason, to apply the method to real datasets an accurate background resistivity model is required to gain a meaningful representation. A method and a system are described for the remote detection of the position of a pig device 10 inside a pipeline 12 for transporting pressurised fluids, like for example long distance oil and gas pipelines having a strategic international value.

The method foresees equipping the pipeline 12 with pressure sensors 14 in contact with the fluid, located at at least one of the two terminals A, B of the pipeline 12 , and the sending and processing of signals by means of a control unit The operation of the system is that of identifying and locating, in real time and continuously, a pig device 10 that moves intermittently inside the pipeline 12 , for example during cleaning, monitoring, measurement and non-destructive control operations.

Method, with relative system, for continuous remote monitoring of the integrity of pressurized pipelines and properties of the fluids transported, preferably able to be used with long-distance gas pipelines and oil pipelines, comprising the following phases: Acoustic wave propagation in hard-walled ducts is of interest in many fields including vehicle design, musical instruments acoustics, and architectural and environmental noise-control.

For the case of small sinusoidal perturbation of the cross-section, it is possible to derive simple though approximate analytical formulas of its plane wave acoustic reflection and transmission spectral response that resembles the optical situation of uniform Bragg gratings.

The proof is given here, starting from the "horn equation" and then exploiting the coupled-modes theory. Examples of the results obtained with these analytical formulas are shown for some sinusoidally perturbed ducts and compared to results obtained through a numerical method, revealing a very good agreement. Vibroacoustic Monitoring of Gas-Filled Pipelines.

Vibroacoustic monitoring is an emerging technique for the detection of leaks and third party interference TPI on fluid transportation pipelines. The technique is based on the remote identification of fluid transients and pipe shell vibrations produced by the interaction with the pipe and with the flow, and transmitted through the conduit. The system performance is a function of the thermodynamic properties of the fluids, that can be mainly separated in liquids, gases, and multiphase mixtures.

We analyze here pressure transients propagation in gas filled pipelines. We have run field test campaigns in many scenarios, at different pressures, with and without flow, also in operational conditions, generating controlled interactions with the infrastructure and collecting vibroacoustic signals with a proprietary network of monitoring stations placed along the pipeline.

We process the data in order to derive pressure transients propagation parameters and detection distance, to characterize the source wavelet with respect to the interference action leak, impact, etc. Advanced Pipeline Vibroacoustic Monitoring. In fact, any interaction with the pipe generates pressure waves that are guided within the fluid gas or oil for long distances, carrying information on the source event.

Pressure propagation is mainly governed by the absorption coefficient and the sound speed. These parameters are in turn complicated functions of the frequency, the geometrical and elastic parameters of the pipe shell, the elastic parameters of the surrounding medium, and the acoustic and thermodynamic properties of the transported fluid. We have analyzed these aspects while processing acoustic data collected on crude oil and gas transportation pipelines, in different operational and flow conditions.

This study describes the acquisition campaigns and the data analysis steps used for the experimental derivation of fluid properties and pipe anomalies. The results are also used for the validation of mathematical models of pressure waves propagation in fluid filled pipes. Mar Offshore Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition. Multi-point Acoustic Sensing MAS technology makes use of hydrophone sensors placed at discrete distances along pipelines in order to detect third party interference TPI and leaks.

These parameters are in turn complicated functions of the signal frequency, the geometrical and elastic parameters of the pipe shell, the elastic parameters of the surrounding medium, and the acoustic and thermodynamic properties of the transported fluid. We have analyzed this last aspect while processing acoustic data collected on crude oil and natural gas transportation pipelines, in different operational and flow conditions.

Caratterizzazione dei parametri murari di edifici civili con tecniche georadar. E' noto che diversi atti amministrativi concernenti gli edifici residenziali o del terziario, nuovi o preesistenti, devono essere corredati dal certificato energetico dell'edificio, a seguito degli obblighi di legge introdotti nell'ultimo quinquennio a livello nazionale e, a maggior ragione, in forza di recenti delibere emanate da diverse regioni. La quota totale degli edifici con pareti in muratura portante o non è quindi sicuramente ancora oggi di gran lunga preponderante nell'insieme degli edifici civili.

Per gli edifici meno recenti ben difficilmente si dispone delle informazioni di progetto relative alla composizione delle murature che concorrono ad una corretta definizione della dispersione termica dell'edificio. Questi metodi sono stati discussi in [4].

RSE, con la collaborazione di Solgeo s. Le misure sono state condotte dapprima in laboratorio su quattro simulacri di parete, con struttura rappresentativa di tipologie molto diffuse, e successivamente estese ad alcune pareti opache in opera su edifici reali.

Di seguito, dopo un richiamo dei principi di funzionamento della tecnica georadar, si sintetizzano le condizioni di prova ed i risultati ottenuti e si discutono brevemente le criticità incontrate ed i possibili sviluppi della metodologia di indagine.

Maggiori dettagli sono forniti in due rapporti liberamente consultabili, disponibili in rete sul sito di RSE www. Mar 7th Pipeline Technology Conference. In fact, any interaction with the pipe generates pressure waves that are guided within the fluid for long distances, carrying information on the source event.

We have designed several experimental campaigns on oil and gas transportation pipelines, instrumented with a proprietary MAS system.

We have defined and simulated an exhaustive set of TPI and leak tests, taking care of the quantitative characterization of the dynamic parameters, especially at the source point. Stima della conduttanza termica delle pareti di edifici civili mediante la tecnica georadar. In merito alla problematica della misura in opera della trasmittanza termica di pareti in muratura di edifici civili, nel rapporto si discutono i risultati ottenuti con applicazione della tecnica georadar all'identificazione della struttura interna delle pareti e viene delineata la configurazione di un sistema di misura dedicato.

Parallelamente è stata valutata l'influenza di errori di stima della trasmittanza sulla certificazione energetica di edifici tipo. Well-log data are processed in order to derive subsurface physical parameters, namely rock porosity, fluid saturations and permeability.

This step involves the selection and inversion of experimental constitutive equations, which are the link between the rock parameters and geophysical measurements. In this paper we investigate the rock parameter observability and the reliability of well-log data processing.

We present a visual analysis of the constitutive equations and of the inverse problem conditioning, when using independently, or jointly, log data from different domains. The existence of a common set of rock properties cross-properties that influence different measurements, makes it possible to reduce the ambiguities of the interpretation.

We select a test case in a reservoir scenario and we explore how to determine rock porosity and fluid saturation from sonic, conductivity and density logs. We propose a Bayesian joint inversion procedure, which is able to control the conditioning problems, to efficiently take into account input data and model uncertainty and to provide a confidence interval for the solution.

The inversion procedure is validated on a real well-log data set. Third party interference and leak detection on buried pipelines for reliable transportation of fluids.

In order to mitigate such risks and to minimize environment exposure, it is possible to deploy remote real-time monitoring technologies, which in turn need to be field tested and qualified in a real production scenario. Not only it is necessary to assess their performance, but also to evaluate their integrability within the company business processes, as well as, their easy-of-use, and the training efforts required.

Two technologies were identified that allow remote real-time detection, classification and geo-localization of TPI and leak events. The first one is based on Fiber Optics FO standard communication cable, typically buried along the pipeline for communication purposes.

In this technology the fiber optics cable is used as a distributed vibration sensor, able to detect remotely possible threats to the pipeline infrastructure.

The second one is discrete Acoustic Sensing AS , and comprises a set of dynamic pressure and vibroacoustic sensors installed on the pipeline, at relative distances of a few kilometers. Both technologies require a significant amount of development and field tests, in order to qualify detection and classification algorithms. We have started in Y a long term field trial on an oil pipeline in service in the North of Italy to evaluate the benefits that such technologies might contribute to the asset integrity.

In this paper, we report and discuss the preliminary results of an extensive set of tests performed by simulating intrusions, impacts and leak events. Vibroacoustic monitoring of pigging operationsin subsea gas transportation pipelines. Pig tracking, especially in long subsea pipelines, is still a challenging problem. We have carried out a long term vibroacoustic monitoring field test, by measuring pressure variations within the fluid and vibrations on the pipe shell at the terminal station of an offshore gas pipeline.

During the field test, several pigging operations have been observed, in different scenarios, comprising gas pumping restart low pressure , smart pig inspection, and standard maintenance high pressure. A travelling pig generates fluid transients, related to the compression of the fluid ahead of it, and to the sounds produced by the interaction with the inner pipe wall. These transients propagate along the pipeline and can be recorded at distances up to tenths of kilometers.

Their identification and classification can be crucial for real time pig tracking and detection of anomalies. In this paper we describe the test campaign results.

Then, we analyze the acoustic signals recorded for some pigging scenarios, we show original ways of displaying the results, also with audio rendering, and we compare the experimental measurements using mathematical models of sound propagation within the pipes. This study is a step towards the development of a remote monitoring system for pigging operation and inspection. Sperimentazione di tecniche georadar per la stima della conduttanza termica delle pareti opache di edifici civili.

Il rapporto documenta un'indagine bibliografica e la sperimentazione di un approccio originale relativi allo sviluppo di tecniche sperimentali per la stima della conduttanza o trasmittanza delle pareti opache in opera negli edifici civili. L'indagine condotta su fonti di letteratura ha fatto emergere due diverse attività di ricerca che intendono sviluppare metodi termografici per la misura in-situ della trasmittanza termica di pareti perimetrali degli edifici.

Da parte di RSE è stata proseguita l'attività di ricerca per lo sviluppo di una metodologia non invasiva di identificazione della struttura interna dei contenimenti murari degli edifici, con la collaborazione del Politecnico di Milano e della società Solgeo s. L'attività di sviluppo è stata focalizzata sull'impiego della tecnica georadar per l'ottenimento di una immagine tridimensionale della struttura interna della muratura.

La campagna di misura è stata eseguita su quattro simulacri di muro, con caratteristiche sensibilmente diverse e che rappresentano tipologie tuttora molto diffuse di murature, presenti soprattutto in edifici più o meno datati. Una sperimentazione preliminare ha consentito di individuare in un'antenna da 2 GHz di frequenza nominale il miglior compromesso tra risoluzione e profondità di penetrazione.

Su tutti i quattro simulacri di parete indagati si sono potuti ottenere risultati facilmente interpretabili ad un esame visivo rispetto alla struttura interna della muratura.

Sulla base dei risultati ottenuti sono stati delineati i successivi sviluppi della ricerca. Detection of anomalies inside hollow metal cylindrical structures. The evaluation of the physical conditions of a hollow metal cylindrical structure is critical in many applications, such as those involving oil or power generating industries or water pipeline networks. Direct and internal inspection is often not possible or highly costly in terms of time and inspection tools.

We present here a guided waves-based technique whose particularity is to detect and to quantify a circular anomaly inside a hollow metal cylindrical structure, while being deployed.

The technique requires only one measurement point to obtain information on remote sections that are hundreds of metres apart. Radar equipment sends an electromagnetic wave through an open end of the structure and it receives the backscattered field, which is produced by variations of the internal hollow structure radius deformations, welding joints, etc.

We derive the link between the recorded signal, which carries information on amplitude and propagation time, the circular anomalies parameters, defined by the percent radial reduction, rap, and the deformation length, la, avoiding the complications of the most classification algorithms.

The anomaly identification is obtained through an inversion procedure that performs well with both the synthetic and real data. Interface rugosity affects wave propagation and it can produce poor imaging of the interface itself and of the underlying reflectors.

We explore this effect on data generated with a full-wave elastic modeling code on 2D models. A variable rugosity top interface overlies a second plane interface.

Seismic data is acquired on the surface with a standard split spread layout. We use the semblance computed along hyperbolic events on the common shot gather as target detection indicator.

Interface rugosity is parameterized by the vertical amplitude and by the horizontal variability, defined respectively by the standard deviation with respect to the plane case, and by the maximum spatial frequency.

Results show that, even for severe rugosity, the reflection from the deep interface is still detectable, whereas the reflection from the rough interface itself disappears when rugosity amplitude is higher than half the signal wavelength. This study can help in understanding wave propagation in volcanic media. Estimation of rock properties from seismic, EM and gravity well-log measurements.

Localization Algorithms for Search and Rescue Applications. We explore the potential of traveltime analysis compared to energy analysis for 2D and 3D localization. A joint analysis of both the signal parameters can be an appropriate strategy to improve the 2D localization reliability. Besides, traveltimes can potentially extend the localization to the third dimension by returning an approximate estimate of the survivor depth.

Main obstacles to achieve this goal are the inhomogeneity of the debris pile, the need of a real-time response, the limited extension of the sensor array. Despite of these difficulties, the preliminary results obtained in the fields with two different algorithms, one based on statistical traveltime inversion, the other based on data focusing, are encouraging and show accuracy in the limit of the seismic resolution.

Both the algorithms are flexible and can be customized to face the peculiar constraints posed by this application. Geophysical methods are used to obtain physical properties of the subsurface, by inverting the constitutive equations.

If there exists a common set of rock properties cross-properties that influence different measurements, their joint utilization can reduce the ambiguities of the interpretation. We select a test case in a reservoir scenario, and we explore how to determine rock porosity and water saturation from P-velocity and conductivity input measurements.

Automatic Localization of Acoustic Sensors. Many geophysical applications require the acquisition of multichannel data with sensor networks e. In all these situations the accuracy of the processed data is linked to the proper spatial sampling and to the knowledge of the location of the individual station points. However, in many scenarios manual assignment of sensor locations is impractical or cumbersome, and some positioning irregularity can be compensated during the processing step.

So, it becomes more important the accurate knowledge of the sensor position rather than their accurate positioning. In this paper we explore the use of acoustic time delay estimation for the automatic localization of network sensors. We investigate also the operational steps necessary to perform the self positioning in some practical situations, possibly without the need of additional equipment or using only commercial off-the shelf low cost devices e.

Joint inversion of well-log data. We consider the processing of well log data, in which the measurements taken at a reservoir level fluid filled porous rock give the properties of the compound medium.

From a collection of noisy well log measurements, it is desired to estimate the parameters characterizing the formation, namely the porosity and the volume ratio of the individual fluid specimens water, oil and water.

The problem is solved by inverting the constitutive equations. We show that ambiguities are reduced by using jointly seismic, electrical and density data. P- and S-wave migration of while drilling data. I investigate some aspects of multicomponent processing in seismic while drilling SWD acquisitions. I start from the consideration that a working roller cone is a good source of both P- and S-waves. Then, by examining the radiation pattern of the bit, I evaluate the subsurface illumination in simple models and for different geophone directivity.

Results show that S-waves can increase the lateral extent of the imaged area, while P-waves achieve a higher illumination in the vicinity of the borehole.

By using the appropriate velocity model, it is possible to obtain a migrated gather for P- waves and one for S-waves separately.

In addition, migration gathers can be observed in the aperture angle domain. Results on SWD synthetic data confirm this analysis. I also produce P- and S-wave migrated gathers from field data: The information thus collected about both compressional and shear properties of the subsurface, especially during the drilling process, can be crucial to predicting overpressured zones and to reducing the ambiguity between variations in pore pressure and variations in lithology.

Bayesian Inversion of Traveltimes for Cavity Location. We present a case history for the location of a cavity in the subsurface by processing the signal generated inside the cavity by a seismic source. The signal emitted by the source is recorded by surface sensors and it is processed in order to obtain direct arrival traveltimes.

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We got a whole mess of fun here, folks. Where does the time go? And is one way more correct than the others? The story of an imaginary word that managed to sneak past our editors and enter the dictionary.