# 4.30 Trading with MACD Indicator

This fact goes in favor of using a period setting which is more commonly used world-over. The first trade is short, and it comes when one of the histogram bars closes lower.

## MACD Signal Line Calculation

Installing Technical Analysis library for R. Loading Historical Data Input. R is a free open-source statistical analysis environment and programming language. Installation is easy and quick. For download and installation instructions go to: While many trading platforms, such as Interactive Brokers, etc.. This requires a significant time investment, regardless of how experience programmer you are.

The amount of code required to develop a trading strategy in R is typically an order of magnitude less as well. We will append calculated indicators as new columns to our input file so that it can be used for further analysis or trading strategy prototyping in Excel, R, or any other CSV-friendly software package of your choice.

This step includes instructions for installing TTR library, assuming you already have installed R on your computer. This steps only needs to be performed once per R installation on a computer. Click here to download the data file. The next step is to import our data file with historical prices into R environment. This by default shows first 6 rows of data along with column names table header.

This shows we have data records in our SPY data file, for trading days between Sep 3, — May 31, It is always a good idea to read help pages for the functions you are using, since they will list all optional parameters that you can use to tweak the output. Also, many functions have variations or related functions, which could be helpful in various circumstances and will be listed on the help page.

Notice that we calculate EMA for period length. To calculate Bollinger Bands indicator we use the BBands function. The output contains several columns: Notice that in this example we are overriding default length parameter for moving average, using period average this time. RSI command in R shell to get details for the function parameters. It has two required parameters: Here the first parameter to RSI function is: You can also optionally specify moving average function you want to use for MACD moving averages.

See a screenshot of the help page below you can also use? MACD command in R shell to open the help page yourself:. Now, we join all of the indicators calculated above with the original input data into a single data frame:. The resulting file is available here. R provides a convenient and versatile environment for data analysis and calculations.

Traders can significantly cut down the time required to prototype and backtest trading strategies using R. It has a number of great code examples and goes over a number of useful R packages. This is a good intro-to-intermediate level book for people who would like to build and backtest their own trading strategies. Column M2 — we set the first value in EMA to be equal to the close price:. Now we copy the formula to the rest of the column by selecting cell M3 and double-clicking on the little square in the lower-right corner of the cell.

You can now hide columns L and M, since they are not of any practical use except serving as intermediate values for MACD indicator calculations. We will also see how we can easily update MACD parameter values and see changes instantly reflected on our chart. The Relative Strength Index RSI is a momentum oscillator that calculates velocity and strength of a financial instrument price movement. It was developed by J. Welles Wilder s and to this day remains one of the most popular indicators in technical analysis.

RSI ranges between 0 and and this fact makes it a convenient indicator to evaluate whether market is currently overbought or oversold. RSI is typically calculated for a range of 14 price bars, which is the default value in most trading platforms.

However, any positive integer value can be used, with higher values generally considered to be providing stronger but slower signals. RSI consists of a single time series. Average gain is calculated as the sum value of all gains over the number of periods using 0 for periods that generated losses , divided by the number of periods. Likewise, average loss is the sum of all losses using 0 for periods that had a gain , divided by the total number of periods.

The formula uses the absolute value for average loss. In cell P2 we enter 0. Copy formula from P3 to the rest of column P by selecting the cell and double-clicking the square in lower right corner. Do not worry about the fact that value in cell Q2 contains REF!. Expand the formula to the rest of column Q by double-clicking a small square at the lower-right corner of cell Q2. You will see that values in rows 2 to 13 contain REF!

To remove the annoying REF! For instructions on how to do that — please refer to section Removing Formula Errors in Part I in this article series. Insightful post on MACD http: Your email address will not be published.

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